Biodiversity Of Kerala

Detailed Information

Kerala, a state located in the southwestern part of India, is known for its rich biodiversity. It encompasses a diverse range of ecosystems, including the Western Ghats mountain range, coastal areas, backwaters, wetlands, and forests. Here are some key aspects of the biodiversity in Kerala:

1. Western Ghats Biodiversity: The Western Ghats, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, runs parallel to the western coast of Kerala. It is one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, hosting numerous endemic plant and animal species. The region is home to diverse forests, grasslands, and shola habitats.

2. Forests: Kerala has various types of forests, including tropical evergreen forests, semi-evergreen forests, moist deciduous forests, and dry deciduous forests. These forests harbor a wide array of flora and fauna, including a variety of tree species, orchids, medicinal plants, and endangered animals such as the Nilgiri tahr, lion-tailed macaque, and Malabar grey hornbill.

3. Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks: Kerala boasts several wildlife sanctuaries and national parks that protect its biodiversity. Some prominent ones include Periyar Tiger Reserve, Silent Valley National Park, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, and Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary. These protected areas offer habitats for elephants, tigers, leopards, deer, langurs, and numerous bird species.

4. Coastal and Marine Biodiversity: Kerala’s long coastline, backwaters, estuaries, and marine ecosystems contribute to its coastal biodiversity. Mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs support a variety of marine life, including dolphins, sea turtles, crabs, fish species, and migratory birds.

5. Ramsar Sites and Wetlands: Kerala has several Ramsar sites designated under the Ramsar Convention, which signifies the international importance of wetlands. These include Vembanad-Kol Wetland, Ashtamudi Wetland, Sasthamkotta Lake, and Pathiramanal. Wetlands in Kerala provide habitats for migratory birds, resident bird species, fish, and amphibians.

6. Agricultural Biodiversity: Kerala is known for its agricultural practices that incorporate diverse crop varieties, including paddy fields, plantations (such as tea, coffee, and spices), and home gardens. Traditional agricultural systems contribute to the conservation of indigenous crop varieties and agro-biodiversity.

Efforts are being made by the government, environmental organizations, and local communities to conserve and protect the biodiversity of Kerala through various initiatives, awareness campaigns, and conservation programs.

Contact Information
Kerala, India

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